Tuesday, 17 October 2017

Renaissance Battle - Burgundy v France

Over the weekend Mark and I managed to dust down the Renaissance PoW rules and get out the French and Burgundian armies.  Prior to Charles the Bolds defeat and death by the Swiss, Burgundy's principle foe was France with whom it sought to dominate the lowlands, Alsace, Lorraine and Burgundy.  Luckily for France, Burgundy's utter defeat and collapse at the hands of the Swiss left a power vacuum on its borders which it filled with the help of the Holy Roman Empire. 

Historically, the Burgundians should be a match for the French.  Whenever, the English campaigned on the continent they always needed Burgundian men at arms to match the French.  The Burgundians also led Europe in the development of artillery and in the establishment of a combined arms standing army.  

The French emerged victorious from the Hundred Years War through the establishment of heavy artillery that took every English stronghold except Calais.  It was also used effectively on the battlefield mowing down assaults by previously irresistible dismounted men at arms.  The French heavy cavalry remained  the finest in Western Europe and was composed with the cream of French society.  However, the infantry was weak and was some years behind the developments led by Burgundy.

We both struggle to determine each other's real deployment.  My French are on the left and Mark is on the right.

The generally open battlefield benefitted us both but where do we put our main effort?  Mark has put 25 points on each of the hills nearest the viewer.  He was relying on a firm push ahead of his baggage to secure victory.  I had opted for a defensive 25 points on the central steep hill and a further 25 points on the far town.  We had 13 turns to secure a victory but both of us were wary of committing an attack until we knew the others intentions.  We wasted the first six turns trying to spot each other!

My artillery offers only desultory support as my infantry move against the all arms force in the distance.  Off to my far left and beyond the woods my skirmishing bow lure Mark's troops towards me.  However, they are soon wiped out by the first rolled "20" of the day.

At last I felt I had enough information to force the issue.  My main infantry command was anchored on the left flank guarding the town and utilising the difficult ground.  I had attached a Gens d'armes and a retainer unit to this flank to give it some punch.  My two other cavalry commands were behind the steep hill under my CinC and on top of the right flank hill.  Mark had a weak combined arms force opposite the town and I decided to push against it and see whether this would prompt a response.

My CinC (cavalry in the bottom right) charges forward in support of my left flank which is already in combat around the village.  My Gens d'armes have already pushed the Burgundian men at arms back towards the table edge.

Mark still stuck to his wait and see plan.  He moved a little further forward to better engage my left flank and as a result was further away from any support that could be got from his slow central infantry command and his far away left flank cavalry.  My CinC slowly (it took 2 turns!) changed his orders and charged off in support of my infantry in the hope of smashing Mark's right flank and uncovering his centre.  However, they were not needed.  My left flank efficiently overwhelmed their opposite numbers and my CinC was able to change his orders from a position that uncovered the flank of the Burgundian infantry.

The Burgundian artillery has already routed and a unit of Gens d'armes and retainers is munching through  a lone unit of archers.  Mark's CinC is attached to the archers in a vain attempt to shore up this flank.  For fun I have charged the pike block with a spare unit of Gens d'armes - ouch!

We had reached the final two turns of the game by this point.  Mark had skirmished ahead of my right flank in the hope of forcing my elite Gens d'armes off their high ground.  However, this suited me as his remaining army were pinned watching my right flank as my CinC smashed into archers and artillery in the centre uncovering the Burgundian baggage.

Just to see how good the Burgundian pike was I charged into a block of three - I was minced!

The Burgundians are a good army but difficult to wield.  The generals are all D6 which is OK and it has all troop types but not an overwhelming superiority in one particular type.  Mark allowed himself to be picked off in detail without challenging me in the one troop type in which he did have a decided superiority - his pike!  Until I saw an opportunity I was not willing to risk my army against this all round force.

As a result of this game we think this period would be ideal for our first operational game outside of the twentieth century.  Once we have fully developed the ideas we will discuss further.

Wednesday, 11 October 2017

modern spearhead errata rules

Errata & Amendments

These changes update your copy of Modern

Spearhead to the latest version.

Title Page (with Picture of M60)

Paste the following, if you wish, into the bottom

corner of the picture to identify what version

your rules are updated to:


Page 1 – Ground Scale

Replace first 2 lines with:
the ground scale For MSH is 1” = 100 metres. MSH uses this



scale with realistic engagement ranges which permits play-

Page 1 – Part One: The Command System

Replace the last 2 lines with:
organized by nationality and describes the typical composition of



all units in the game according to nationality.

Page 2 – National Characteristics of Forces

Replace the 5 Paragraphs NATO1, NATO 2,

Warsaw Pact “Warpac” 1, etc, with:
NATO 1: Tactically and technologically sophisticated forces following the



doctrine of flexible mission orders and a recon-pulled command and

control system. Typically Regular Army forces from the USA, Great




Britain, Israel, Germany, France, and Canada, All SAS, Seals, etc.


NATO 2: Forces that follow the doctrine but are not as capable as NATO

1 forces due to lack of technology or training. Typically Regular Army




forces from Holland, Belgium, Italy, Greece, Australia, New Zealand,

Saudi Arabia; Jordan, etc, and some National Guard forces in the USA.


Warsaw Pact “WARPAC” 1: Technologically sophisticated forces



following a doctrine of centralized, detailed orders and command-pushed

command and control systems. Typically frontline Soviet forces and




immediate reserves, some East German and Chinese forces.


Warsaw Pact “WARPAC” 2: Forces that follow similar doctrine but are

not as capable as WARPAC 1 forces due to lack of technology or

training. Typically frontline forces from Poland, Czechoslovakia,




Yugoslavia, China, some East German forces, selected elite formations

from Syria, Egypt, and Iraq, and some Soviet (Russian) reserve forces.


Third World: Although generally (but not exclusively) organised using

Warpac doctrine, these armies suffer from inferior command and control,

technology, and/or training. Typically Egyptian, Syrian, Iraqi, and Iranian




forces, Guerrillas, other Warpac reserves, and all ‘third line’ reservists.


Page 8 – 3.1.3 Command Zone “CZ”

Replace the second ‘paragraph’ with:
12” for Battalions containing up to 12 Platoons

18” for Battalions containing between 13 and 18 Platoons

24” for Battalions containing 19 or more Platoons



Modern Spearhead – Official Errata – Version 1.11 – 13 August 2006

http://modernspearhead.net/
Modern Spearhead is © 2000 Wargames Inc, John Moher, Alex Macris, Arty Conliffe. This update © 2006 John Moher, Alex Macris, Arty Conliffe. Page 2 of 7


Page 8 – Command Zone Diagram

The diagram is wrong – all distances should

read 12” not 6” (there are 6 references).

Replace Diagram and accompanying text with

the following:
An 11 Platoon Battalion with its 12” CZ to the BC. All the Infantry

Platoons are within 12” of the BC. The Mortar Platoon (a Support

Platoon) has been dropped off and left beyond the 12” to provide fire



support.

Page 8 – Top of Second Column

First Paragraph – replace with:
The CZ distances are based upon the original size of the Battalion

(including any Attachments) and are permanent for the game; i.e.

these distances do not shrink as the Battalion receives losses except

for when companies are dropped off (see 3.9.1).


Page 12 – Cover (under 6.1 Spotting Distance)

Lines 4-5 (last 2) or Paragraph, replace with:
Provides protection from fire, while other Cover only conceals;

see Combat Chart (Direct Fire modifiers); sec 7.5.2.


Page 12 – Woods & Marshes

There is a print error on the second to last line,

S3” should read 3” – Strike Out or Delete the S

or cut out and paste the following:
same terrain feature, Spotting is limited to 3”. See LOS, sec 6.3,

and Firer Eligibility Sec. 7.4.

Page 13 – Hills & Depressions

Last paragraph after diagram (2 lines) –

replace with:
However, Platoons in or at the Edge of a Depression are Spotted

by Platoons on Hills as if in the Open.


Page 13 – 6.4 Hull Down

First paragraph (2 lines) – replace with:
Hull Down (HD) is protective cover. Hull Down may be obtained

only by selected vehicles on Hills or in Depressions.


Page 13 – 6.5 Ambush

Paragraph 1, Lines 3-4; replace with:
Ambush fires first in the stationary fire phase, and may not be fired upon



in the turn in which it was first spotted; i.e. a previously Unspotted Platoon

Page 15 – 7.4 Firer Eligibility

Paragraph 3, lines 3-4; Strike Out or Delete the

following:
or in “Hull-Down” positions


Page 16 – Direct Fire Adjudication

Paragraph 2, line 6 (last line); Strike Out or

Delete the following:
less than -3 or



Page 17 – Effective Ranges For Infantry Weapons

Top of column 2, replace all 6 lines with:
type Platoons, based on the approximate effective ranges of

modern small arms. AI Ranges are 6” for most Infantry and 9” for

(MG) Support Platoons; and 3” for low firepower Infantry or

Militia. Infantry use ATGW factors for Anti-Tank fire and these

have a range of 3” or 6” unless the platoon includes a heavier

complete ATGW weapon, when ranges will be 9” or greater.


Modern Spearhead – Official Errata – Version 1.11 – 13 August 2006

http://modernspearhead.net/
Modern Spearhead is © 2000 Wargames Inc, John Moher, Alex Macris, Arty Conliffe. This update © 2006 John Moher, Alex Macris, Arty Conliffe. Page 3 of 7


Page 17 – 7.6.1 Infantry Anti-Tank Fire

Replace the whole section, both paragraphs

and Title, with:
7.6.1 Infantry Anti-Tank Fire “ATGW”



The ATGW factor of infantry represents the anti-armour capabilities

of Dismounted Infantry and Combat Teams; LAW/MAW type

weapons; rocket-propelled grenades; and in some cases full ATGW

systems. Infantry ATGW Factors usually have a 3”, or 6” Range (or

very rarely 9”). They may attack targets out to these ranges using

the appropriate ATGW factors listed and in these cases they may

combat move and fire or Ambush using those ATGW factors.

Infantry with the longer ranges (9”+) are usually using full ATGW

systems and may not move and shoot or Ambush with them. Infantry

stands with the longer 9”+ range ATGW systems can be assumed to

also have a second 2-3” Infantry ATGW factor as well. The 3” and 6”

range is exaggerated for game purposes to produce the desired

overall effect. See 7.8.1 for more on the firing procedure for ATGW.


Page 17 – 7.7 Vehicle Direct Fire

First two lines, replace with:
Vehicle (and Combat Team) AT fire represents attacks from cannon



using various anti-armor shells. The cannon also contributes

Page 17 – 7.7.1 Front/Flank Shots

Replace the first two lines with:
All Platoons have an imaginary “Front Line” (which runs

indefinitely) across/parallel to the front edge of the Platoon’s


Page 18 – Passenger Targets in Trucks

Lines 4-5 (last 2 lines), replace with:
automatically suffer the same effect. Suppressed passengers must

immediately dismount and the soft vehicle is removed from play.


Page 18 – 7.8.1 ATGW Fire Eligibility

Paragraph 2 (the example), replace lines 1-2

with:
Example: A Leopard 2 is the priority target of a stationary BMP-2

Combat Team. The Range is 9”. The BMP-2’s AT factor is 5, while



Page 20 – On-Table Artillery Arc and Range of Fire

Last Paragraph, lines 7-8 (last 2 lines), replace

with:
All Gun & Howitzer Artillery must use Direct Fire when targets are within

Direct Fire range and LOS. They may not fire indirect in this situation.



Page 21 – FOs for Brigade- and Divisional-level Artillery

Paragraph 2; replace lines 9-10 (last 2) with:
FOs do not block line of fire for friendly Platoons and do not count as

platoons towards the capacity limit in Town Sectors.

Page 23 – 8.5 Round Types

Second Paragraph, replace whole paragraph

with:
The availability of Round Types based on nationality, year, and level

of artillery, is indicated below under the Round descriptions. Note



that certain weapons are only eligible to fire specific types of

Rounds. Where possible these limitations are noted on the Data

Cards for those weapons.



Page 23 – 8.5.3 Precision-Guided Munitions (PGM)

Paragraph one, lines 7-9 (last 3 lines), replace

with:
ifies the AT factor of the firing artillery by +2 against ground targets

and always attacks the Flank Aspect. PGM is the only indirect fire

round that may be used against Helicopters, see sec. 11.9.


Third Paragraph, replace entire paragraph

with:










  - ! "
# $ % & '
(
#

-

Page 23 – 8.5.4 Rocket Assisted Projectiles (RAP)

First Paragraph, replace entire paragraph with:
Rocket Assisted Projectiles are used to give conventional

“tubed” guns the long range of rockets. When using RAP, the

effects are identical to Smoke, HE, ICM, or Chemical

ammunition except that the Maximum Indirect Fire Range of the

weapon is increased by about 1/3. This is particularly useful



when applied towards Counter Battery Fire, see sec 9.0. Note

that minimum range of RAP weapons is also increased. Where

possible the maximum range of RAP capable weapons has been

given on the Data Cards, otherwise assume an increase of 1/3.



Modern Spearhead – Official Errata – Version 1.11 – 13 August 2006

http://modernspearhead.net/
Modern Spearhead is © 2000 Wargames Inc, John Moher, Alex Macris, Arty Conliffe. This update © 2006 John Moher, Alex Macris, Arty Conliffe. Page 4 of 7


Page 24 – Smoke Screen Procedure

Third Paragraph, replace entire paragraph

with:
A platoon that is in Ambush and has just been spotted may conduct



Ambush Fire through Smoke which was first placed during the

Artillery Fire phase of that turn. (This prevents a player from using

smoke to avoid Ambushes by Platoons which have just been

spotted). However, a Platoon may not claim Ambush Fire through

Smoke which is being ‘stoked’; i.e. smoke which has previously been

placed in an earlier turn and is being sustained through stoking.


Page 24 – 8.5.6 Chemical Smoke

Replace entire Paragraph with:
Chemical smoke rounds are identical to Smoke rounds except that

they block Spotting even for Platoons equipped with TI night vision

equipment. Chemical Smoke is available to Soviet artillery from




1980, U.S. artillery from 1988, and other NATO artillery from 1990.

Warpac and Others do not have Chemical Smoke unless specified.


Page 25 – 9.2 Locating Enemy Batteries

Paragraph 3 (2 lines) – replace entire

paragraph with:
If the modifier is such that it is impossible for a throw of 6 to succeed,

a roll of 11-12 on two dice instead will always locate.


Page 25 – Counter Battery Location Chart

Replace modifiers section with:
-1 if target unit just fired for the first time in the game.

-1 if target unit has moved since the previous time it fired.



-1 if target unit is SPGs (but not MRLs).

+1 if target unit is MRLs.


+1 if target unit has fired for two or more consecutive turns.

Page 25 – 10.1 Type of Aircraft

Last 4 lines of paragraph, replace with:
may perform only one type of attack during a game. Ground



Attack Aircraft may execute a Cannon attack and one other

additional mode of attack during a game. Attack ordnance must



always be chosen before the game begins.

Page 26 – 10.3 Calling-In Sorties

First paragraph (3 lines), replace with:
Any number of Air Sorties, up to an entire Squadron or 3 Sorties

(whichever is greater), may be Called-In by a single Spotter



against any targets that are initially within LOS of the Spotter.

Page 26 – 10.4 Aircraft Attacks

First Paragraph, last 3 lines at the bottom of

the first column, replace with:
Specialist Ground Attack Aircraft (such as the A-10) receive two Beaten

Zones per sortie, each 6” long and 2½” wide, place contiguously

extending from the Aircraft’s front base edge to form a 12”

Page 26 – Attack Modifiers (for Aircraft)

One modifier is missing; replace the last 3

modifiers with the following 4:
· ICM attack vs. any moving vehicle or combat team +1

· Napalm attack vs. Tank/AFV (not including Combat Team) -2

· Napalm attack vs. target in Entrenchments -1

· Anti-Radiation Missile (ARM) attack vs. Veterans -1


Page 26 – AA Presence Modifiers

Replace chart of 3 modifiers with:
-1 if Enemy AA Guns, or Infantry SAMs are firing within 18” of the

Aircraft (ignored if delivering SB or ARM).

-1 if Larger Enemy SAMs are firing within 30” of the Aircraft.

-1 if Any Enemy Off-Table SAMs fired this turn.

(Note: these modifiers do not apply to attacking helicopters).

Page 28 – 11.3.4 Mission D: Air Defense Suppression

First Paragraph, lines 5-6 (last 2 lines), Strike

Out/Delete:
that fired against the Helicopter this turn


Page 29 – Attack Modifiers (for Helicopters)
Last (3rd) Bullet Point – top of Second Column,


replace entirely with:
· Target is an AA Platoon that fired at the attacking Helicopter

which is operating under Mission D: -1



Modern Spearhead – Official Errata – Version 1.11 – 13 August 2006

http://modernspearhead.net/
Modern Spearhead is © 2000 Wargames Inc, John Moher, Alex Macris, Arty Conliffe. This update © 2006 John Moher, Alex Macris, Arty Conliffe. Page 5 of 7


Page 30 – 11.8 AA Fire vs. Helicopters

First & Second Paragraph, replace both

paragraphs with:
All dedicated AA Platoons (with Fire Priority D), except for Off-Table

vehicle-launched & emplaced SAMs, may fire at any spotted enemy



helicopters. AA platoons may also claim Disappearing Fire if they

can spot the Helicopter at any point along its flight path on its turn of

entry. Other Platoons which may fire AA are designated in the Data

Cards as having an AA Factor, but may only fire on a Helicopter if

they are the current priority target of that Helicopter’s attack; or if

they have no ground targets and no other air targets of a higher

priority (and/or closer proximity).

HS AA fire and similar may be fired over the heads of friendly Platoons at

Helicopters at Cruise Altitudes, but not at NOE. Dedicated AA Platoons

may fire over the heads of friendly Platoons at any Helicopters. AA Fire



comes before Helicopter attacks are conducted.

Note – change from version 1.00 is modification to last sentences and

the addition of the 2nd paragraph in the errata.
Page 31 – Assaulting Vehicles

Replace the Paragraph with:
Dismounted Infantry are not permitted to Assault AFVs or Combat

Teams unless the AFV or CT is inside terrain (i.e. not in the Open) or

Suppressed. Unarmed Transport Vehicles may be Close Assaulted

anywhere, and are automatically destroyed along with any

passengers and/or towed or portée weapons they are transporting.


Page 31 – 12.1.1 Combined Arms Assaults

Second Paragraph, replace the whole

paragraph with:
Combined Arms Assaults (CAA) differ from Infantry Assaults in only



two respects; otherwise they are exactly the same. First, if the target

of the CAA is a crew-served weapon it is automatically destroyed if

contacted, and second, CAAs may be conducted against AFVs at




any time – even if they are in the Open and Unsuppressed. Note: All

dedicated ATGW & SAM vehicles and SPGs with DEF 3 (5) count as

Crew-Served weapons for CAAs and Overruns.


Page 31 – 12.2 Overrun Attacks

Fourth Paragraph, replace whole paragraph

with:
Unarmed Transport Vehicles (along with any passengers and/or

towed or portée weapons they are transporting) and crew-served


weapons are automatically destroyed if contacted. Overrun Attacks



may not be used to circumvent Target Priority rules (i.e. to attack

enemy infantry in the face of enemy armor). Combat resolution is

similar to Assault Movement & CAAs and uses the same Modifiers.

Page 31 – Close Combat Modifiers Table

Replace entire table with:
Close Combat Modifiers:


All modifiers are cumulative.

Attacking an Entrenched Enemy Platoon -1

Any Vehicle in a Town Unsupported -2*

Armour conducting Overrun in the Open +1 (+0 elsewhere)

Combat Team in a Town +1

Combat Team in the Open against any Soft target +2

Combat Team in the Open attacking an Unsuppressed AFV -1

Combat Engineers/Assault CEV/Flamethrower +1**

Veterans +1

HQ Stands +1

Crew-Served Weapons incl. ATGW and SAM Vehicles -1

Suppressed -2

* Vehicle stands are unsupported if at least 1 non-HQ dismounted

Infantry or Engineer, or non-HQ Infantry or Engineer Combat Team stand

is not present in the sector.

** Standard (Light) Engineers do not get this modifier.

Page 33 – 14.0 Morale

Paragraph at top of second column, Lines 5-6

(last 2), replace with:
experience. Ratings are flexible and relative depending upon

scenario design; suggested Morale ratings are listed in the TO&Es.


Page 34 – 14.2.3 Rallying From Suppression

First Paragraph, Lines 6-7 (last 2 before list of

modifiers):
next turn’s Rally Phase. The following modifiers to the die roll apply:


Page 35 – 15.2.1 Laying Minefields

Second Paragraph, Replace entire paragraph

(3 lines) with:
Once play begins, Mines may be emplaced by Minelayer

Vehicles at a rate of 1 x 1¼” Minefield each turn, or delivered by




Aircraft or Artillery. They are always treated as Mixed Minefields.


Page 36 – Soviet Armored Fighting Vehicles

Replace entire paragraph (5 lines) with:
Soviet Self-Propelled Guns and Tanks, and some Western Tanks, which



are equipped with Dozer Blades, should automatically receive Light

Entrenchments if the scenario specifies that they have been on-table for

at least 2 hours before the game begins. A battalion may have 1 x 1¼”




Light Entrenchment per Dozer Stand per 2 hours preparation.


Modern Spearhead – Official Errata – Version 1.11 – 13 August 2006

http://modernspearhead.net/
Modern Spearhead is © 2000 Wargames Inc, John Moher, Alex Macris, Arty Conliffe. This update © 2006 John Moher, Alex Macris, Arty Conliffe. Page 6 of 7


Page 36 – 15.5.1 Bridging

First Paragraph; Replace entire paragraph

with:
One Engineer Platoon requires 16 turns to assemble a single 1¼” long light pontoon

bridge using 1 bridge section (stand). These bridges may bear the weight of all

platoons and their tows with weight 2 or less. One or Two additional Engineer

Platoons may help reducing the time taken to 8 and 4 turns respectively. Double the

time (32 turns) and bridge sections (2 stands) is required to assemble a 1¼” pontoon

bridge capable of bearing platoons of any weight (and completion times are 32, 16,

and 8 turns respectively). If a 2½" Pontoon Bridge is required double the time and

bridge sections required above for the respective type of bridge. No more than 3

Engineer stands can ever work on any one bridge.


Third Paragraph; Replace last 2 lines with:
create a large bridge. Ribbon bridges may also be used as Heavy

Ferries, see sec. 15.5.2.


Page 38 – 17.4 Effects of Weapons of Mass

Destruction – Attack Modifers

Replace last line at bottom of column with:
* Not Cumulative; Open-Topped APCs (of ICTs); and SPGs with

DEF 3 (5) or Recon AFVs do not impose either modifier

Page 40 – Top of Second Column

First Paragraph (3 Lines), replace entire

Paragraph with:
Make certain your games have enough terrain. Even the

comparatively open spaces of Sinai and the German Plains



contain rolling hills, rises, depressions, and other features.

Page 42 – Scenarios

Sword & Shield Scenario
4/60th Armored Battalion, replace 2nd line with:




)
* + ,- .

1/32nd Armored Battalion, replace 2nd line with:



%
)
* + ,- .

Page 47 – Designers Notes

Box with contact details at bottom right of

page, replace box with:
Support for Modern Spearhead:

Official Website:

http://modernspearhead.net/

Discussion and Support Group:

http://groups.yahoo.com/group/Spearhead/

Quick Reference Sheet

Update the appropriate sections of the QRS by

pasting in the following:

Sequence of Play Table
1. Determine Initiative

2. Movement:


2a. Side A moves all units, declares Close Combats,

makes EW attacks. Side B marks disappearing fire.

2b. Side B moves all units, declares Close Combats,

makes EW attacks. Side A marks disappearing fire.

3. Fire Attacks:


3a. Indirect Artillery, Mortar, Rocket, & SRBM Fire.

3b. Air Support Requests, then Anti-Aircraft Fire, then

Fixed Wing Attacks, then Helicopter Attacks.

3c. Stationary Direct Fire.

- Ambush Fire is resolved First, then

- All other Stationary Direct Fire.

3d. Moving Direct Fire.

4. Morale Tests – due to Fire Combat Casualties.




5. Close Combat:


5a. Resolution of all Close Combats.

5b. Morale Tests – due to Close Combat Casualties.

6. Command Phase:


6a. Attempt to Rally Suppressed Platoons.

6b. Issue Order Changes & Commit Reserves.

Combat Chart

Modifiers to die roll: The “Target in Heavy

Cover” modifier is missing its “-2”, write it in or

paste the following over the top:
/ &
0
  1 2 3 +
4 ( # 5 - (
6

Modern Spearhead – Official Errata – Version 1.11 – 13 August 2006

http://modernspearhead.net/
Modern Spearhead is © 2000 Wargames Inc, John Moher, Alex Macris, Arty Conliffe. This update © 2006 John Moher, Alex Macris, Arty Conliffe. Page 7 of 7